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3rd International Conference on Antimicrobial and Antibacterial Agents, will be organized around the theme “ Fostering Advances and Applications in the field of Antimicrobial and Antibacterial agents”
Antimicrobial Congress 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Antimicrobial Congress 2020
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An antimicrobial is an agent that destroys or prevents the development of microorganisms. Antimicrobial medicines may be classified by the micro-organisms against which they primarily function. For example, antibiotics are used to kill and inhibit the growth of bacteria and antifungals are used to kill and inhibit the growth of fungi. They can be categorized according to their function. Agents that inhibit the growth of microbes are called Biostatic agents whereas the agents that kill the microbes are called Microbicidal agents. Classification of Antimicrobials
- Track 1-1Antibacterial
- Track 1-2Antifungal
- Track 1-3Antiviral
- Track 1-4Antiparasitic
Antimicrobial chemotherapy is the clinical application to treat infectious disease of antimicrobial agents. Different types of drugs such as antibacterial, antifungal, anthelminthic, antiprotozoal, antiviral, etc, are used in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Based on the type of the drug used, Antimicrobial Chemotherapy is classified into following types
- Track 2-1Antibacterial chemotherapy
- Track 2-2Antifungal chemotherapy
- Track 2-3Anthelminthic chemotherapy
- Track 2-4Antiprotozoal chemotherapy
- Track 2-5Antiviral chemotherapy
Clinical Microbiology is a branch of medical science which mainly deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. It is concerned about various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. Clinical Microbiology plays an important role in patient care by providing the cause of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility data to physicians. Rapid diagnosis of pathogens is necessary to facilitate the successful administration of antibiotics and to increase treatment rates. It has different methods of analysis used to identify and isolate the microbes.
- Track 3-1Isolation of microbes
- Track 3-2Characterization of microbes
- Track 3-3Clinical trials
- Track 3-4Scope of clinical microbiology
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides a specific disease with active acquired immunity. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a microorganism that causes disease and is often produced from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent activates the body's immune system to identify the agent as a threat, kill it, and further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms that may be associated with that agent in the future. Vaccines may be prophylactic (to prevent or reduce possible infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen) or preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines being investigated). Administration of vaccines is called Vaccination. There are various types of vaccines. For example,
- Track 4-1Inactivated Vaccine
- Track 4-2Attenuated Vaccine
- Track 4-3Toxoid Vaccine
- Track 4-4Conjugate Vaccine
Food microbiology is the study of micro-organisms that inhibit, create or contaminate food, including micro-organisms that cause food spoilage, disease-causing pathogens, especially when food is improperly cooked or stored, those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer and wine, and those with other useful roles such as probiotics.
- Track 5-1Fermented foods
- Track 5-2Microorganisms responsible for food spoilage
- Track 5-3Microorganisms used in food processing
- Track 5-4Probiotics
Veterinary microbiology deals with domesticated animal microbial (viral, bacterial and fungal) diseases (fellow animals, livestock, fur-bearing animals, fish, game, poultry) that provide food, other useful products or companionship. However, if the pathogens are of concern because of their interrelation with humans (zoonoses) and/or domestic animals, bacterial diseases of wild animals living in captivity or as members of the feral fauna will also be considered. Also included were tests of antimicrobial resistance. Microbial adaptation is the term used to describe microbes ' ability to withstand their environment's selective pressures. For microbial pathogens, such stresses can be due to the biological obstacles of the body and the tissues where they enter to create infection or the immune, antiseptic, or medicinal control measures that we throw at them. While bacteria and parasites can turn on different genes in response to various stimuli, microbial adaptation usually refers to the selection of a genetically distinct microbe population.
- Track 6-1Factors affecting microbial diversity
- Track 6-2Adaptation of bacteria in aquatic environment
- Track 6-3Fungal presence in water environment
Microbial physiology is characterized as the study of how, in living organisms, microbial cell structures, growth and metabolism work. It covers the study of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Microbial metabolism means Microbes obtaining energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) which are required to live and reproduce. Microbes use many different types of metabolic strategies and organisms dependent on metabolic characteristics can often be distinguished from each other. A microbe's unique metabolic properties are the key factors in determining the ecological niche of that microbe, and often enable that microbe to be useful in industrial processes or to be responsible for biogeochemical cycles. Microbial metabolism is classified based up on three principles
1. How the organism obtains carbon for synthesizing cell mass
2. How the organism obtains reducing equivalents used either in energy conservation or in biosynthetic reactions
3. How the organism obtains energy for living and growing
- Track 7-1Autotrophic
- Track 7-2Heterotrophic
- Track 7-3Mixotrophic
- Track 7-4Lithotrophic
- Track 7-5Organotrophic
- Track 7-6Chemotrophic
- Track 7-7Phototrophic
Geomicrobiology is the science field at the geological and microbiological intersection. It concerns the role of microbes in geological and geochemical processes and microbial growth, activity, and survival effects of minerals and metals. Such kind of interactions occurs in the geosphere (rocks, minerals, soils, and sediments), the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. Geomicrobiology studies microorganisms which control the biogeochemical cycles of the Earth, mediate precipitation and dissolution of minerals, and absorb and concentrate metals. The applications include
- Track 8-1Bioremediation
- Track 8-2Mining
- Track 8-3Climate change mitigation
- Track 8-4Public drinking water supplies
Agricultural microbiology is a microbiology branch that discusses plant-associated microbes and diseases of plants and animals. It also addresses soil fertility microbiology, such as microbial degradation of organic matter and transformation of soil nutrients. Soil microbiology is the study of soil microorganisms, their functions and how they affect the properties of soil. It is assumed that the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came into being on Earth's oceans about two and four billion years ago. Such bacteria could trap nitrogen, compounded over time, and oxygen released into the atmosphere as a result. This resulted in more advanced microorganisms that are significant because they influence the structure and fertility of the soil. Soil microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and protozoa. Each of these groups has features that define them and their soil functions.
- Track 9-1Bacteria
- Track 9-2Actinomycetes
- Track 9-3Fungi
- Track 9-4Protozoa
Pharmaceutical microbiology is one of the branches of microbiology. This includes, for instance, the study of pharmaceutical microorganisms, reducing the number of microorganisms in a system environment, excluding microorganisms and microbial bi-products such as exotoxin and endotoxin from water and other starting materials, and ensuring that the finished pharmaceutical product is sterile. Certain aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include research and development of anti-infectious agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic behavior in prospective medicines, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products such as insulin and human growth hormones. Pharmaceutical Microbiology mainly focus on the following:
- Track 10-1Drug safety
- Track 10-2Antimicrobial activity and disinfectants
- Track 10-3Methods and specifications
- Track 10-4Cleanrooms and controlled environments
Diagnostic microbiology is the study of microbial identification. Researchers have been finding ways to extract different species since the invention of disease germ theory. Using methods such as differential media or genome sequencing, physicists and scientists can observe new functions in organisms in order to diagnose organisms more effectively and accurately. Methods used in diagnostic microbiology are often used to take advantage of a particular difference in organisms, often by referring to previous studies, in order to obtain information on which species it may be. New studies provide data that can be cited by other researchers so that scientists can have basic knowledge of the species with which they work.
- Track 11-1Automated culturing systems
- Track 11-2Blood cultures
- Track 11-3Breath tests
- Track 11-4Conventional tests
- Track 11-5Rapid antigen tests
- Track 11-6Biochemical profile- based microbial identification system
The intelligence shown by microorganisms is microbial intelligence (popularly known as bacterial intelligence). The definition includes complex adaptive behavior in single cells and altruistic or cooperative acts in populations of similar or unlike cells mediated by chemical signals that trigger physiological or behavioral changes in cells and influence colony structures. A few examples of Microbial Intelligence are:
- Track 12-1Biofilms
- Track 12-2Bacterial colony optimization
Environmental microbes are a significant source of drug discovery, and several microbial products (anti-tumor products, immunosuppressant, antibiotics and others) are routinely used for human therapy. Most of these products were obtained from cultivable environmental microbes, and this means that the vast majority of microbes were not targeted for drug discovery. With the advent of new and emerging technologies, we are poised to harvest novel drugs from the so-called 'uncultivable' microbes. In this article, we propose how a multidisciplinary approach combining different technologies can expedite and revolutionize drug discovery from uncultivable microbes and examine the current limitations of technologies and strategies to overcome such limitations that might further expand the promise of drugs from environmental microbes
- Track 13-1Genetically modified organisms
- Track 13-2Novel species discovery
Antibiotics can interact with a number of other medicines, including prescription, OTC, and natural products. A good practice norm is to obtain a full list of current medications before introducing new antibiotic regimens. If questions arise, a variety of online medication interaction checkers are available, and local pharmacists are happy to serve as a resource. For example
- Track 14-1Drug- Drug interactions
- Track 14-2High risk antibiotic drug- drug interactions
- Track 14-3Warfarin
- Track 14-4Fluor quinolones
- Track 14-5Oral Contraceptives
An allergic reaction may occur during anesthesia administration but it is not very common. It is estimated that 1 out of every 10,000 patients receiving anesthesia have an allergic reaction during the time following their procedure. This may be attributable to any number of drugs, not just the ones needed for anesthesia. In addition to allergic reactions, nonallergic reactions and side effects of medication can cause symptoms that are easily mistaken for those of an allergic reaction.
During surgery you're exposed to a wide range of materials and medications, whether the substance irritates your skin, or you are allergic to it, any of these can cause a rash. This is referred to as contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are usually located in one or two body spots.
Oral medicines given during surgery may also induce rash if you are allergic to any of these. That often called a rash on the drug. Drug rashes are unique in that most body appears to be affected by contact dermatitis.
- Track 15-1Symptoms of allergic reactions after anesthesia and surgery
- Track 15-2Serious side effects of anesthesia
- Track 15-3Allergic contact dermatitis
- Track 15-4Irritant contact dermatitis
- Track 15-5Major causes of surgical rashes
Bioremediation is used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil, and surface material, by altering environmental conditions to boost micro-organism growth and degrade the target pollutant. Biodegradation is the decay by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi of organic matter. Any excessive alteration in material properties caused by organisms ' essential behaviors is called Bio deterioration. It is the most critical method for the total removal from the atmosphere of chemicals. As a result, a chemical's ability to biodegrade is an essential element in recognizing any threat to the environment posed by that chemical.
- Track 16-1Phytoremediation
- Track 16-2Biodeteriogens
- Track 16-3Mechanism of bio deterioration
- Track 16-4Biodegradation vs. composting
- Track 16-5Factors affecting biodegradation rate
- Track 16-6Mechanism of biodegration
- Track 16-7Landfarming
- Track 16-8Bioleacheing
- Track 16-9Bioventing
- Track 16-10Mycoremediation
- Track 16-11Biodeterioration of organic and inorganic materials
A biofilm comprises any group of syntrophic microorganisms in which cells bind to one another and sometimes also to a surface. Biofilms can form on living or non-living surfaces and can occur in natural, industrial and hospital environments. The microbial cells that grow in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from the same organism's planktonic cells, which, on the other hand, are single cells that can swim or float in a liquid medium. Biofilms can grow on the teeth of most animals as a dental plaque, where they can cause decay and gum disease. In response to various factors, microbes form a biofilm, including cell recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a substrate, nutritional signs, or, in some cases, exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory antibiotic levels. A cell that switches to the growth mode of biofilm is undergoing a phenotypic behavioral shift in which large gene suites are regulated differently.
- Track 17-1Origin of Biofilms
- Track 17-2Development of biofilms
- Track 17-3Dispersal of biofilms
- Track 17-4Properties of biofilms
- Track 17-5Extracellular matrix
Oral pathology is the specialty of the discipline of dentistry and pathology that deals with the nature, identification and management of oral and maxillofacial diseases (mouth and jaw). It is a science that examines these diseases ' causes, mechanisms and consequences. Oral pathology practice involves disease research and diagnosis using surgical, radiographic, microscopic, biochemical, or other tests.
- Track 18-1Stomatitis
- Track 18-2Tooth resorption
- Track 18-3Chronic alveolar osteitis
- Track 18-4Maxillary canine extension
- Track 18-5Discoloured teeth
- Track 18-6Malocclusions
Microbial Virulence is the ability of a pathogen or microbe to invade a host or destroy it. Virulence refers to the ability of a pathogen to infect a resistant host in the form of gene for gene systems, often in plants. Virulence refers to the degree of damage done by a microbe to its host in most other contexts, especially in animal systems. An organism's pathogenicity-its disease-causing ability-is determined by its virulence factors. Virulent may characterize either the severity of the disease or the infectiveness of a pathogen. The word virulent is derived from the Latin word virulentus, meaning "toxic wound" or "absolute poison."
- Track 19-1Virulent bacteria
- Track 19-2Methods by which bacteria cause diseases
- Track 19-3Virulent viruses
By reducing the need for antimicrobial use, vaccines can reduce the prevalence of resistance and also reduce its impact by reducing the total number of cases. Vaccines may allow the use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics for experimental therapy by reducing the number of pathogens that may be responsible for a specific clinical syndrome. Such results can be exacerbated by herd immunity, which extends safety in the population for unvaccinated people. Because a great deal of resistance selection is due to the selection of bystander members of the normal flora, vaccination may reduce resistance pressure even in non-vaccinated pathogens. Many vaccines have disproportionate effects within the target species on drug-resistant lineages, an advantage that could be used more intentionally in vaccine layout.
- Track 20-1Hib conjugate vaccine
- Track 20-2Respiratory vaccine