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2nd International Conference on Antimicrobial and Antibacterial Agents, will be organized around the theme “Novel Researches on Infection, Immunity & Drug Discovery”

Antimicrobial Congress 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Antimicrobial Congress 2019

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Antibiotics are used against bacterial infections and some protozoan infections. An antibiotic is an antimicrobial substance who is dynamic against microscopic organisms and is the most important type of antibacterial agents for fighting microbes. Various antimicrobial agents act by interacting with cell wall synthesis, plasma membrane integrity ribosomal function, folate synthesis, and nucleic acid synthesis. The interaction between alcohol and certain antibiotics may occur many cause side-effects and decrease the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. In medicinal chemistry, most modern antimicrobials are a semi-synthetic modification of various natural compounds. The cephalosporin ceftaroline and the lipoglycopeptide oritavancin and telavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.  

Vaccines is a biological preparation that improves immunity to particular diseases. A monovalent vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single microorganisms. A multivalent or polyvalent immunization is designed to vaccinate against two or more strains of the same microorganisms or two or more microbes. The use of plasmids has been validated in preclinical studies as a preclinical study as defensive immunization procedure for cancer and infectious diseases. Once the altered pathogen is introduced into the bloodstream, it is captured by antigen-presenting cell, which floats around and looking for invaders. A vaccine can prevent outbreaks of contagious diseases through herd immunity.

Clinical microbiology is a incorporates testing for a diverse group of microorganisms. The role of clinical microbiology includes the identification and quantification of microorganisms that cause human disease and to provide diagnostics information for therapeutic support in the clinical management of patients. Medical virologists must also deal with the new threat of bioterrorism, which uses agents like smallpox. Medical microbiology is applied to medicine is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. Therapeutic microbiologists also play a key role in controlling the spread of infectious diseases.

Microbial physiology is a scientific concern of life supporting functions and process of bacteria, which allow bacterial cells to grow and reproduce. It is important in the field of metabolic engineering and functional genomics. Microbial adaptation is the ability of microbes to endure the selective pressure of their environment. Bacteria adapt to other environmental conditions as well. These include adaptation to change in temperature, pH, the concentration of ions such as sodium, and the nature of surrounding support.  Microbial metabolism is required to live and reproduction of microbes which is obtained from the energy and nutrients.

Infection is the invasion of an organism’s body tissue by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins by the produce. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods and microparasites. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Diseases can arise if the host’s protective immune mechanism is compromised and the organisms inflict damage on the host. The immune system response to micro-organism often causes symptoms such as a high fever and inflammation and has the potential to be more devastating than direct damage caused by a microbe.  

Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious diseases include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes, and parasitic plants. Most bacteria that are associated with plants are actually saprotrophic and do harm to the plant itself. A plant becomes diseased when it is continuously disturbed by some casual agent that results in an abnormal physiological process that disrupts the plant normal structure, growth, function or other activities. Control of plant disease is crucial to the reliable production of food and it provides significant reductions in the agricultural use of land, water, fuel, and other inputs.

Food microbiology is the study of the micro-organisms that inhibit, create or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage. Fermentation is one of the methods to preserve food and alter its quality. Especially, yeast is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine. From the meat and poultry regulatory perspective, we will be addressing bacteria as the main source of food contamination. Bacteria are the most important microbes to the food processor. Human illness caused by foodborne microorganisms are mainly referred to as food poisoning. 

Industrial microbiology applies in microbiology to produce industrial products in mass quantity. The medical application to industrial microbiology is the production of new drugs synthesized in a specific organism for medical purpose. The commercial production of penicillin and other antibiotics are the most dramatic in industrial microbiology. Production of antibiotics is necessary for the treatment of many bacterial infections. Microbial inoculants are the addition of microbes into a plant that would essentially help the plant grow by introducing nutrients and stimulating plant growth.

Geomicrobiology is the study of microorganisms and earth materials including soil, minerals, rocks, sediment. It concerns the effect of microbes on geological and geochemical processes and vice versa. Some bacteria use material ions as their energy source. Microbes are used to degrade organic and even nuclear waste pollution and assist in the environmental cleanup. Microbial remediation is used in soils to remove contaminants and pollutants.

 

The ability of bacteria to cause diseases is described in terms of the number of infecting bacteria, the route of entry into the body, the effects of host defense mechanisms, and intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria called virulence factors. Virus virulence factors allow it to replicate, modify host defenses, allow it to spread within the host and are toxic to the host. During the process of infection, virulence factors of microorganisms combat with the defense mechanism of the host. If virulence factors overcome the defense mechanism of the host, infection is established otherwise microorganisms are eliminated from the host. Pathogenicity of microorganism is determined by nature and type of its virulence effect.

Veterinary microbiology is concerned with microbial diseases of domesticated vertebrate animals that supply food, other useful products or companionship. Anatomical pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on the gross examination, microscopic and molecular examination of organ tissue or whole bodies. Clinical pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluid such as blood, urine or cavity effusions or tissue aspirates using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.

Bacteria is a more dominant group of microorganisms in the soil and equal to one half of the microbial biomass in soil. Fungi are more numerous in surface layers well-aerated and cultivated soils dominant in acid soils. Actinomycetes are intermediate group between bacteria and fungi which are widely disturbed in the oil. Algae are present in most of the soils where moisture and sunlight are available. They play a vital role in the maintenance of soil fertility, especially in tropical soils. Most of the protozoa drive their nutrition by feeding or ingesting soil bacteria belonging to the genera. Species of the bacterial genera are commonly used as the food base for isolation and enumeration of soil protozoans.

Pharmaceutical microbiology gives knowledge about the significance of the presence of bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and toxins in pharmaceutical raw materials, intermediates, products and pharmaceutical production environment.

Bioremediation is used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil, and surface material by altering environmental conditions to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutant. Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi. Any undesirable change in the properties of materials caused by vital activities of organisms is called biodeterioration. It is a most important mechanism for the total removal of chemicals from the environment. As a result, the ability of a chemical to biodegrade is an indispensable element in the understanding of any risk posed by that chemical on the environment.

Hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms are petroleum microbiology which degrades hydrocarbons and include a wide distribution of bacteria, methanogen archaea, and some fungi. Current applied research on petroleum microbiology encompasses oil spill remediation, fermentor- and wetland-based hydrocarbon treatment, oil, and fuel upgrading through desulfurization, and microbial community- based site assessment. Bacteria with selected petroleum-metabolizing enzymes amenable to being linked to electronic interfaces are being engineered and developed as biosensors.

A biofilm is a community of bacteria that attach to a surface by excreting a sticky, sugary substance that encompasses the bacteria in a matrix. It is composed of a single species or a conglomerate of species. In many cases, biofilms are only bacteria, but they can also include other living things such as fungi and algae, creating a microbial stew of sorts. It is also considered a hydrogel, which is a complex polymer that contains many times its dry weight in water. The biofilm bacteria can share nutrients and are sheltered from harmful factors in the environment, such as desiccation, antibiotics, and a host body’s immune system. A biofilm usually begins to form when a free-swimming bacterium attaches to a surface.

Oral pathology refers to the diseases of the mouth, jaws, and related structures such as salivary glands, facial muscles, and perioral skin. The clinical evolution and diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases are in the scope of oral medicine practitioners, both the discipline of dentistry. When a microscope evolution is needed, a biopsy is taken , and microscopically observed by a pathologist. In some part of the world, oral and maxillofacial taken on responsibilities in forensic odontology.