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2nd International Conference on Antimicrobial and Antibacterial Agents, will be organized around the theme “Novel Advancements & Therapeutic acuities in Microbial Infection, Immunity & Drug resistance”
Antimicrobial Congress 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Antimicrobial Congress 2019
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Vaccines is a biological preparation that improves immunity to particular diseases. A monovalent vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single microorganisms. A multivalent or polyvalent immunization is designed to vaccinate against two or more strains of the same microorganisms or two or more microbes. The use of plasmids has been validated in preclinical studies as a preclinical study as defensive immunization procedure for cancer and infectious diseases. Once the altered pathogen is introduced into the bloodstream, it is captured by antigen-presenting cell, which floats around and looking for invaders. A vaccine can prevent outbreaks of contagious diseases through herd immunity.
- Vaccines Discovery, Devlopment, Formulation
- Vaccines Clinical Trials
- Vaccines Research
- Pneumonia Vaccines
Microbial physiology is a scientific concern of life supporting functions and process of bacteria, which allow bacterial cells to grow and reproduce. It is important in the field of metabolic engineering and functional genomics. Microbial adaptation is the ability of microbes to endure the selective pressure of their environment. Bacteria adapt to other environmental conditions as well. These include adaptation to change in temperature, pH, the concentration of ions such as sodium, and the nature of surrounding support. Microbial metabolism is required to live and reproduction of microbes which is obtained from the energy and nutrients.
- Bacterial physiology
- Metabolic engineering
- Isolation, characterization and application of novel anaerobes
Infection is the invasion of an organism’s body tissue by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins by the produce. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods and microparasites. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Diseases can arise if the host’s protective immune mechanism is compromised and the organisms inflict damage on the host. The immune system response to micro-organism often causes symptoms such as a high fever and inflammation and has the potential to be more devastating than direct damage caused by a microbe.
- Autoimmune diseases
- Opportunistic pathogens
- Transmission of Infection and Precautions
- Infectious Disease Outbreak
- Cleaning and Disinfection
Food microbiology is the study of the micro-organisms that inhibit, create or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage. Fermentation is one of the methods to preserve food and alter its quality. Especially, yeast is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine. From the meat and poultry regulatory perspective, we will be addressing bacteria as the main source of food contamination. Bacteria are the most important microbes to the food processor. Human illness caused by foodborne microorganisms are mainly referred to as food poisoning.
- Origin of microbes in food
- Beneficial microorganisms
- Microbiological poisons
- Advanced microbiological techniques
- Innovative paths for food processing
- Role of antibiotics in agriculture
Industrial microbiology applies in microbiology to produce industrial products in mass quantity. The medical application to industrial microbiology is the production of new drugs synthesized in a specific organism for medical purpose. The commercial production of penicillin and other antibiotics are the most dramatic in industrial microbiology. Production of antibiotics is necessary for the treatment of many bacterial infections. Microbial inoculants are the addition of microbes into a plant that would essentially help the plant grow by introducing nutrients and stimulating plant growth.
The ability of bacteria to cause diseases is described in terms of the number of infecting bacteria, the route of entry into the body, the effects of host defense mechanisms, and intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria called virulence factors. Virus virulence factors allow it to replicate, modify host defenses, allow it to spread within the host and are toxic to the host. During the process of infection, virulence factors of microorganisms combat with the defense mechanism of the host. If virulence factors overcome the defense mechanism of the host, infection is established otherwise microorganisms are eliminated from the host. Pathogenicity of microorganism is determined by nature and type of its virulence effect.
Veterinary microbiology is concerned with microbial diseases of domesticated vertebrate animals that supply food, other useful products or companionship. Anatomical pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on the gross examination, microscopic and molecular examination of organ tissue or whole bodies. Clinical pathology is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluid such as blood, urine or cavity effusions or tissue aspirates using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.
Bacteria is a more dominant group of microorganisms in the soil and equal to one half of the microbial biomass in soil. Fungi are more numerous in surface layers well-aerated and cultivated soils dominant in acid soils. Actinomycetes are intermediate group between bacteria and fungi which are widely disturbed in the oil. Algae are present in most of the soils where moisture and sunlight are available. They play a vital role in the maintenance of soil fertility, especially in tropical soils. Most of the protozoa drive their nutrition by feeding or ingesting soil bacteria belonging to the genera. Species of the bacterial genera are commonly used as the food base for isolation and enumeration of soil protozoans.
Pharmaceutical microbiology gives knowledge about the significance of the presence of bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and toxins in pharmaceutical raw materials, intermediates, products and pharmaceutical production environment.
- Microbial Ecology and Next Gen Sequencing
- Drug discovery, Development and Molecular biology
- Additional Applications of Microorganisms in the Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bioremediation is used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil, and surface material by altering environmental conditions to stimulate the growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutant. Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi. Any undesirable change in the properties of materials caused by vital activities of organisms is called biodeterioration. It is a most important mechanism for the total removal of chemicals from the environment. As a result, the ability of a chemical to biodegrade is an indispensable element in the understanding of any risk posed by that chemical on the environment.
Hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms are petroleum microbiology which degrades hydrocarbons and include a wide distribution of bacteria, methanogen archaea, and some fungi. Current applied research on petroleum microbiology encompasses oil spill remediation, fermentor- and wetland-based hydrocarbon treatment, oil, and fuel upgrading through desulfurization, and microbial community- based site assessment. Bacteria with selected petroleum-metabolizing enzymes amenable to being linked to electronic interfaces are being engineered and developed as biosensors.
A biofilm is a community of bacteria that attach to a surface by excreting a sticky, sugary substance that encompasses the bacteria in a matrix. It is composed of a single species or a conglomerate of species. In many cases, biofilms are only bacteria, but they can also include other living things such as fungi and algae, creating a microbial stew of sorts. It is also considered a hydrogel, which is a complex polymer that contains many times its dry weight in water. The biofilm bacteria can share nutrients and are sheltered from harmful factors in the environment, such as desiccation, antibiotics, and a host body’s immune system. A biofilm usually begins to form when a free-swimming bacterium attaches to a surface.
Oral pathology refers to the diseases of the mouth, jaws, and related structures such as salivary glands, facial muscles, and perioral skin. The clinical evolution and diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases are in the scope of oral medicine practitioners, both the discipline of dentistry. When a microscope evolution is needed, a biopsy is taken , and microscopically observed by a pathologist. In some part of the world, oral and maxillofacial taken on responsibilities in forensic odontology.
Environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. The environment in this case denotes the soil, dihydrogen monoxide, air and sediments covering the planet and can withal include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental microbiology withal includes the study of microorganisms that subsist in artificial environments such as bioreactors. Molecular biology has revolutionized the study of microorganisms in the environment and amended our construal of the composition, phylogeny, and physiology of microbial communities. The current molecular toolbox encompasses a range of DNA-predicated technologies and incipient methods for the study of RNA and proteins extracted from environmental samples. Microbial life is astonishingly diverse and microorganisms literally cover the planet. It is estimated that we ken less than 1% of the microbial species on Earth. Microorganisms can survive in some of the most extreme environments on the planet and some can survive high temperatures, often above 100°C, as found in geysers, ebony smokers, and oil wells. Some are found in very arctic habitats and others in highly salt saline, acidic, or alkaline dihydrogen monoxide. An average gram of soil contains approximately one billion (1,000,000,000) microbes representing probably several thousand species. Microorganisms have special impact on the whole biosphere. They are the backbone of ecosystems of the zones where light cannot approach. In such zones, chemosynthetic bacteria are present which provide energy and carbon to the other organisms there. Some microbes are decomposers which have ability to recycle the nutrients. So, microbes have a special role in biogeochemical cycles. Microbes, especially bacteria, are of great importance in the sense that their symbiotic relationship (either positive or negative) has special effects on the ecosystem.
These sicknesses can be passed from person to person. is a medical condition defined by the tenderness of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis A is an intense irresistible infection of the liver instigated by the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis B is an infectious disease instigated by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects the liver. It can cause both intense and chronic infections. is spread mostly by blood-to-blood contact linked with intravenous drug. The IHV focusses in the treatment of AIDSand other chronic viral diseases, such as Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, and the Human Papilloma Virus Infection.
refers to the detailed study of viruses, their structure, shape, habit and habitat. Viral Oncology or Cancer Virology deals with the study of cancer cells. A virus named oncolytic virus tends to infect and destroy the cancer cells. These types of viruses tend to destroy the cancer cells or tumor cells through process where they release a new virus cells or virions which help in the destruction of the remaining tumor cells and there by stimulate anti-tumor immune response. Cancer or Tumor virus infections are caused by Oncogenic DNA or RNA viruses.
- Chemotherapy antibiotics
- Anti-tumour antibiotics
- Cancer Immunotherapy
- Antibiotic prophylaxis
Antibiotics are medications used to kill or slow the growth of bacteria and some fungi. Antibiotics are not effective in treating infections caused by viruses. The definition of antibiotic resistance is the adaptive change in bacteria (mutation) that allows them to grow in the presence of a drug (an antibiotic) that would normally slow their growth or kill them. These antibiotic resistant bacteria and fungi become harder to treat, causing increased morbidity. CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) statistics show there are approximately 2 million antibiotic resistant infections each year in the United States. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), antibiotic resistant infections can lead to longer hospital stays, higher treatment costs, and more deaths.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility
- Concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity
- Time-dependent antimicrobial activity
Antibiotics are used against bacterial infections and some protozoan infections. An antibiotic is an antimicrobial substance who is dynamic against microscopic organisms and is the most important type of antibacterial agents for fighting microbes. Various antimicrobial agents act by interacting with cell wall synthesis, plasma membrane integrity ribosomal function, folate synthesis, and nucleic acid synthesis. The interaction between alcohol and certain antibiotics may occur many cause side-effects and decrease the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. In medicinal chemistry, most modern antimicrobials are a semi-synthetic modification of various natural compounds. The cephalosporin ceftaroline and the lipoglycopeptide oritavancin and telavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.
- Antimicrobial agents
- Use of Antimicrobial Combinations
- Pharmacodynamics Characteristics
- Efficacy at the Site of Infection
- Common Misuses of Antibiotics
Clinical microbiology is a incorporates testing for a diverse group of microorganisms. The role of clinical microbiology includes the identification and quantification of microorganisms that cause human disease and to provide diagnostics information for therapeutic support in the clinical management of patients. Medical virologists must also deal with the new threat of bioterrorism, which uses agents like smallpox. Medical microbiology is applied to medicine is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. Therapeutic microbiologists also play a key role in controlling the spread of infectious diseases.
- Factors in the Designing the antibiotics
- Genomic screening and information technology
- Randomized clinical trials
- Phases of clinical trials
- Interpretation of the clinical trials
- Drug Evaluation
Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious diseases include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes, and parasitic plants. Most bacteria that are associated with plants are actually saprotrophic and do harm to the plant itself. A plant becomes diseased when it is continuously disturbed by some casual agent that results in an abnormal physiological process that disrupts the plant normal structure, growth, function or other activities. Control of plant disease is crucial to the reliable production of food and it provides significant reductions in the agricultural use of land, water, fuel, and other inputs.
- Parasitism and Disease Development
- Effects of pathogens on plant physiological functions
- Genetics of plant disease
- How pathogens attack plants And How plants defend themselves against pathogens
- Plant Diseases caused by Fungi, Prokaryotes, Viruses, Nematodes, Flagellate Protozoa, Parasitic Higher Plants, Invasive higher plants, and Parasitic green plants
- Control of plant diseases